the colony output as a whole. It should be expected then that genes expressed in brains and other nervous tissues will sometimes show parent-specific gene expression. An allele is favored under kin selection if it increases inclusive fitness, which is the sum of all its fitness effects on relatives ( w i including itself, devalued by the coefficient of relatedness of the actor to the individual affected ( r i ). That being said, the problem is somewhat simplified in haplodiploids; because there is no segregation in males, paternal interests are identical to patrigenic interests. Thus, as is well known, as the number of mates increases, the worker optimum approaches the queen optimum of 1 because workers are symmetrically related to half sister and brothers. "Taking Sides and Constructing Identities: Reflections on Conflict Theory." Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 10(1 135-156.
The Biological and Social Perspective
The Psychological and Social Irrationalism
Categorizing Social Status, an analysis
Thus, provided queen relatedness is not low, matrigenes should be less selfish than patrigenes whenever there are more than a few queens. Second, males cannot have conflict between matrigenes and patrigenes because they lack the latter. Class conflict: The struggle between groups occupying different socioeconomic positions in the same society. Weber (1864-1920 The, protestant Ethic promoted hard work, creating an environment in which a capitalistic struggle for resources would thrive. If the costs fall on coevals of both sexes, then patrigenes should be more selfish (Table men And Women In The Work Place 4, column 3). For the question of placing an imprint that acts through the daughter, the appropriate r F is the queen's relatedness to her own particular daughter, 1/2 while the appropriate r coF is the weighted average of the queen's relatedness to her own daughters and. In single-queen colonies, the general rule is that maternal and matrigenic interests are different when the offspring's behavior affects its own fitness (Tables 2, 4, 6, 7 ). Conflict theorists view conflict as an engine of change, since conflict produces contradictions which are sometimes resolved, creating new conflicts and contradictions in an ongoing dialectic. Journal of Classical Sociology, 6(3 381-398.