has become an important, more or less successful instrument of governmental language planning in several Latin American countries. In areas such as the Mosquito Coast, children often are acquiring multiple languages before school begins as discussed in Intercultural Bilingual Education in Latin America: Political Debates and Criticisms by Countries. 43 In addition, the Mapuche people, the largest indigenous nation in Chile, has heavily migrated to urban centers and it has been reported that only twenty percent of Mapuche still live in rural areas. 14 In addition, the IBE program in Nicaragua is largely based on an early-transitional model designed for a facilitated transition into a monolingual Spanish environment and less focused in the long-term maintenance of individuals mother tongues. Indigenous knowledge and language: Decolonizing culturally relevant pedagogy in a mapuche intercultural bilingual education program in chile. 18 With the rise of indigenous activism in the 1970s, and controversy about multilingualism and previous bilingual education projects, a new education model of language maintenance and development emerged.
German State and American Private Education, Navajos Resistance on Education,
19 GTZ edit The German Agency for technical cooperation (GTZ) played a role in supporting the creation of experimental bilingual education programs at the university level in Peru and Ecuador in cohesion with local governments in the early 1980s into the 1990s. 41 IBE in Ecuador: The Political Arena and Organizations edit Indigenous organizations like conaie (Confederation of Indigenous Nations of Ecuador or Confederacin de Naciones Indgenas del Ecuador in Spanish ) and indigenous political figures have greatly pressed for the recognition and enforcement of indigenous language. This provides a solid basic knowledge of the foreign language. Luis Enrique Lpez (2006 De resquicios a boquerones. 41 Therefore, the aidesep IBE program opts to focus on the aspect of self-determination of indigenous peoples about their identity. This included an embrace of cultural aspects the Execution of Jesus that were not exclusively linguistic: teaching aspects of everyday life culture, traditions, and world concepts. Differences: Mecklenburg-Vorpommern : does not take part in the bilingual system at all (so far). MBE in English only and their only subject for this.