1848 by the Smithsonian Institution. American Antiquity 81(2 316-332. In this theory, political control likely developed over the restricted access to food storage, labor to build platform mounds, craft production of luxury items of copper and shell, and the funding of feasting and other rituals. In Fort Ancient sites, which Mississippian immigrants reached in the late 1300s, there was no increased use of maize, but according to Americanist Robert Cook, a new form of leadership developed, associated with dog/wolf clans and cult practices. The Adena and Hopewell were not the only mound-building peoples during this time period. Eisenberg (2000) Indian Mounds of Wisconsin. Securely dated to about 5,400 years ago (around 3500 BCE in the Middle Archaic period, it consists of a formation of 11 mounds from 3 to 25 ft (1-8 m) tall, connected by ridges to form an oval nearly 900 ft (270 m) across. Studies in Illinois Archaeology. "Fragment: Niagara Falls.
termed, mound, builders were inhabitants of, north, america who, during. The, mound, builders of, ancient, north, america. Lincoln, NE: iUniverse, 2004.
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24 Fort Ancient culture edit Main article: Fort Ancient culture Fort Ancient is the name for a Native American culture that flourished from CE among a people who predominantly inhabited land along the Ohio River in areas of modern-day southern Ohio, northern Kentucky, and western. Mississippian cultural groups were independent chiefdoms which were primarily connected, at varying levels, by loosely organized trade systems and warfare. In support of this startling claim the Rev. The eyes of that species of extinct giants, whose bones fill the mounds of America, have gazed on Niagara, as ours do now. In this rich environment just east of the modern day city. These Black groups claim that the American Indians were too primitive to have developed the sophisticated societies and the technology believed necessary to build the mounds. Frauds, Myths, And Mysteries: Science and Pseudoscience in Archaeology (PDF). It is considered to be the last word in the controversy over the Mound builders' identities. This site was then covered with a layer of basket-transported soil and clay known as mound fill and a new structure constructed on its summit.
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