- gether to make their numeral for three, we may judge how deep in the history of culture those. Yet it is evident that, notwithstanding all this profound change, the conception of the human soul is, as to its most essential nature, continuous from the philosophy of the savage thinker to that of the modern professor of theology. Yet the etymology of the word appears in the Spanish form pedrero, French perrier ; it means simply an instrument for throwing stones (piedra, pierre, and it was only when the Spanish word was adopted in England that the imitative faculty caught and trans- formed. We may argue that it was in comparatively recent times that savages arrived at the invention of hand-numerals, and that therefore the etymology of such numerals remains obvious. The following remarks on the eclipse-controversy, made. Language belongs in essential principle both to low grades and high of civilization ; to which should its origin be attributed? Among the influences 144 survival IN culture. If ever thou gave either milke or drink, Every night and alle ; The fire shall never make thet shrinke, And Christe receive thy saule. Suffice it to day that you need to know a lot of different steps and you need to be quite skilled to carry them out. 248, 414, 563, 633. 8 Doolittle, ' Chinese vol.
This man's observation may have been as narrow as his in- ferences are crude and prejudiced, but nevertheless he has been an inductive philosopher ' more than forty years with- out knowing.' He has practically acknowledged definite laws of human thought and action, and. On the one hand, uncivilized men de- liberately assign to apes an amount of human quality which to modern naturalists is simply ridiculous. The theory of the soul is one principal part of a system of religious philosophy which unites, in an unbroken line of mental connexion, the savage fetish-. 17 burst out afresh, to the amazement of a world that thought them long since dead or dying ; here survival passes into revival, as has lately happened in so remarkable a way in the history of modern spiritualism, a subject full of in- struction. The higher race, though advanced enough to act thus on the lower, need not be itself at an extremely high level. Not merely as a matter of curious research, but as an im- portant practical guide to the understanding of the present and the shaping of the future, the investigation into the origin and early development of civilization must be pushed on zealously. Brazilian tribes (Martius, ' Glossaria lingu- arum Brasiliensium. Yet unconsciously, and as it were in spite of themselves, the shapers and transmitters of poetic legend have preserved for us masses of sound historical evidence.
Thus, in examining weapons, they are to be classed under spear, club, sling, bow and arrow, and so forth ; among textile arts are to be ranged matting, netting, and several grades of making and weaving threads ; myths are divided under such headings. 2 With a different idea, the negroes of Old Calabar, when a child sneezes, will sometimes exclaim, ' Far from you! 8 The Siamese butcher, when in defiance of the very prin- ciples of his Buddhism he slaughters an ox, before he kills the creature has at least the grace to beseech its spirit to seek a happier abode. And if in England it still happens that village boors have to be tried at quarter-sessions for ill-using some poor old woman, who they fancy has dried a cow or spoiled a turnip crop, we comment on the tenacity with which the rustic mind clings. 3 Macpherson, ' India.