: (1) The four Eastern patriarchates Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem and the Church of Cyprus, independent since the Council of Ephesus. Theological differences could have been settled if the two areas had not simultaneously developed different concepts of church authority. In 1927 the substitute locum tenens (holder of the position) of the patriarchate, Metropolitan Sergius, pledged loyalty to the Soviet government. Eastern Church it is difficult to say. It was also with the Byzantine government at Nicaea that the Orthodox Serbs negotiated the establishment of their own national church; their spiritual leader,. A successor, Michael Autorianus, was elected in Nicaea (1208 where he enjoyed the support of a restored Greek empire.
Accordingly, provided that Christians submitted to the dominion of the caliphate and the Muslim political administration and paid appropriate taxes, they deserved consideration and freedom of worship. The technical name for the body. Muscovite political ideology was always influenced more by the beginnings of western European secularism and by Asiatic despotism than by Roman or Byzantine law.
History and Development of Russian Orthodox Church,
Roman Catholic Church and later the Eastern Orthodox Church because of a perceived difference in doctrine regarding the divine and human natures. Historically, the most significant event was the missionary expansion of Byzantine Christianity throughout eastern Europe. The Balkans and eastern Europe In bringing about the fall of the Turkish, Austrian, and Russian empires, World War I provoked significant changes in the structures of the Eastern Orthodox Church. Similarly, the Romanian dioceses of Moldavia-Walachia, Transylvania, Bukovina, and Bessarabia formed the new patriarchate of Romania (1925 the largest autocephalous church in the Balkans. In each of its 67 dioceses, the Russian Orthodox Church created a seminary for the training of priests and teachers. In 1620, however, an Orthodox hierarchy was reestablished, and a Romanian nobleman, Petro Mohyla, was elected metropolitan of Kiev (1632). The new system had many significant consequences. The rigid caste system and the strictly professional character of these schools, however, were obstacles to their seriously influencing society at large.