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Boyle Versus Ross

938 (2009 section II C Boyle, 556.S. Turkette, the Court held that an enterprise includes any union or group of individuals associated in fact. Targeting banks mostly in the New York City


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The Rhetorical Common Sense wrote by Thomas Paine

24 25 John Adams, who would succeed George Washington to become the new nation's second president, in his Thoughts on Government wrote that Paine's ideal sketched in Common Sense was "so


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L.M. Alcott: Signature of Reform

Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2004: 118. In 1867, the magazines editor, Thomas Niles, asked her to write a book especially for girls. Questions the morality and upbringing


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Australian Aboriginal Spirituality


australian Aboriginal Spirituality

Australia. The Europeans spread epidemic diseases such as chickenpox, smallpox, influenza and measles. A number of papers have been published in theological journals and books. The British settlement then appropriated land and water resources from the Australian Aborigine, and were ignorant in their assumption that the semi-nomadic Aborigines could be driven off and made to live somewhere else. Art is an expression of knowledge and it is therefore a statement of authority. The 'dreamtime' stories explain how the land was created by the journeys of the spirit ancestors. In fact, the loss of 'traditional lands food sources and water resources was a fatal blow to the Aboriginal communities, who already weakened by disease, were then forced to relinquish their deep spiritual and cultural connection to their land. It was a momentous occasion when on February 13th 2008, Prime Minister Kevin Rudd apologised for the hurt caused by decades of state-sponsored treatment of indigenous Australians.

Indigenous Australians believe that it is the source of all life, and spirituality is a large part of Aboriginal life. Most recently, the National Inquiry into the separation of Aboriginal children in 1997 was a major acknowledgement of the wrongs inflicted on Aborigines during the 'protection' era. Many do not turn to the Church because they do not hear their questions, confusions and longings being addressed with an Australian understanding. Land is fundamental to the well-being of all Aboriginal people.

Dreaming australian, aboriginal art) - Wikipedia
Aboriginal spirituality changes and adapts - Creative
What is, aboriginal spirituality?

The Aboriginal people of Australia and the Torres Strait Islanders have forms and expressions of spirituality, drawn upon stories handed down through generations. The Ancestor Spirits and their powers have not gone, they are present in the forms in to which they changed at the end of the 'Dreamtime' or 'Dreaming as the stories tell. The combination of disease, loss of land and direct violence culled the Aboriginal population by an estimated 1900. As a direct consequence of the 'invasion the enforced move away from traditional areas adversely impacted upon Aboriginal cultural and the spiritual practices which had been necessary for maintaining the cohesion and well-being of the tribal group. All Australian Aborigines shared an intimate understanding of, and relationship with, the land.

The stories have been handed down through the ages and are an integral part of an Indigenous person's 'Dreaming'. Children placed in foster care were often the victims of severe punishment and sexual abuse. Although it is the protector of land and its people, it can also be a destructive force if it is not shown proper respect. The National Inquiry was conducted by the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission in an attempt to assess the damaging effects national policies had on Aborigines.


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