donor demands than members interests and needs. The clash of these cultural frames is an important aspect of the analysis of how violence escalates. Reading 2: Horn,. In Germany, recollections of the end of the Weimar Republic were often"d in the press, and the students breaking of the rules was compared to the political violence that preceded the rise of Nazism. The hard-liners therefore gained momentum and pushed for a style of policing that increasingly alienated the activists from the state (della Porta 1995). Transnational networks of solidarity have also harnessed collective action at the international/global level (Keck and Sikkink 1999). In the 1980s, despite moments of sometimes severe tension, particularly during direct action such as the blocking of gates at military bases, peace activists and police were experienced in avoiding escalation into violence (Rochon 1988,.
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Della Porta,., Wagemann,. Police and public order in Italy, 19441948: an event that changed my life The case of Florence. Over time, different social movements have transformed themselves into political parties (e.g. Should these different groupings work in closer synergy with one another? Review essays: What must we explain to explain terrorism?
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